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CS26/CS27 Single Crystal Orientation Apparatus

CS26/CS27 Single Crystal Orientation Apparatus

Self-contained X-ray generators operating at up to 30kV, 20mA with closed circuit water cooling, providing X-ray beams to two goniometers which can be arranged with an optional range of crystal/wafer supports.  Vacuum chucks are used to retain delicate wafers and a vacuum pen is also available.  The CS26 is designed for use with silicon and other semiconductor materials requiring a precision of ± 0.1⁰.  The CS27 is provided with an angular measuring system with a precision of ±0.1 min. of arc.  Complete X-ray safety is ensured by screens and mechanical interlocks making the apparatus suitable for use by un-classified operators.

2-Circle and 4-Circle Diffractometers

2-Circle and 4-Circle Diffractometers

Invented by one of the founders of CSL in 1936 diffractometers have become, throughout the world, the most  used apparatus for identification or detailed analysis of crystalline powders.  A 2-circle diffractomer with scintillation detector, pulse height analyser and ratemeter/counter provides the essentials.  Extensive data bases for comparative purposes are available.  The 4-circle diffractometer is the most powerful tool available for the determination of the structure of single crystals.

Goniometer Heads

Goniometer Heads

Goniometer heads are used to mount a crystal on the axis of an optical or X-ray goniometer, diffractometer or crystal cutting machine, to facilitate centring on the main axis and to align any particular direction in the crystal with the axis.  Two types are used:  Eucentric, where two slides support the crystal mount and are mounted on two arcs centred on the crystal.  This arrangement offers the benefit that the crystal stays on the axis when the angles are changed. The more common arrangement has the arcs nearer the crystal than the slides.  This allows the arcs and slides to be operated by motors for remote control, and increases the angular adjustment that can be accommodated within a given cone angle drawn from the crystal’s centre.

CS10 Powder Camera

CS10 Powder Camera

A Debye-Scherrer type camera providing recording of the powder diagram through 360º.
The beam trap is provided with a fluorescent lead-glass window to confirm correct alignment with the X-ray beam.  A convenient film punch and cutter is available to shape 35mm wide film to the correct dimensions.

CS20 X-ray Generator for Student Use

CS20 X-ray Generator for Student Use

A console with high voltage and insulated current supplies (35kV, 20mA) for the X-ray tube, control and front panel displays of the HT and mA supplies, closed circuit water cooling system, two timers to control the exposure at each window, mounting of the CS25 Universal Goniometer control box and a table-top fitted with tube-shield, CS10 Powder Camera, CS25 Universal Goniometer and two safety screening enclosures.  These comprise two concentric, slightly more than half cylinders, which can be rotated about their vertical axis. In the working position two holes allow the X-ray beam to reach the apparatus within the enclosure.  In all other positions of the cylindrical shields, the beam is cut off making it impossible for the operator to be exposed to the radiation. The X-ray goniometer or powder camera can be accessed from three sides.

CS25 Universal Crystallographic Goniometer

CS25 Universal Crystallographic Goniometer

Provides a substantial steel base with a range of attachments for examining crystals and powders using Laué, forward- and back-reflection cameras with flat film.  Cylindrical cameras are also available for single crystal or powder studies. An optical tele-microscope is used with the goniometer head for setting single crystals on the axis and for studies using light from an optical collimator with a polariser and analyser. X-ray collimators of 0.5 and 1mm diameter and a mounted Geiger-Mueller counter with separate rate-meter is available. An oil-filled gearbox is driven by a stepping motor to provide rotation and oscillation of the vertical axis and the angle can be read out to ±0.05⁰ on an odometer type counter.  Manual rotation of the main axis is also catered for.

Portable Radiation Monitor

Portable Radiation Monitor

The CS15 version of this rechargeable, battery operated Geiger counter has a moving- coil meter with a calibrated dial and a separately mounted GM tube.  The On-Off switch allows a battery check in the third position. A built-in circuit allows recharging from the mains.  A loud speaker makes clicks as the counter tube pulses.

Pocket GM Monitor

The smaller pocket monitor with a calibrated dial has the GM tube built in and uses a long life PP3 battery. An LED and speaker display/monitor the pulses.

Lanham Microscope Stage

Lanham Microscope Stage

Using a microscope fitted with colour filters to vary the colour of light being reflected from the polished surface of a speck on a rock sample, a graph of reflectance against wavelength can be produced. By comparison with a file of pre-recorded graphs the identity of the rock can be determined.  A speck as small as 5µ diameter can be measured.  To standardise the reading at each wavelength it is necessary to compare the reflecting power of the rock against a polished silicon standard.  This microscope stage provides mountings for the rock sample and the silicon standard so that they can be adjusted to be level and coplanar.  An accurate slide allows rapid interchange between the two, with precise return to the given measuring positions.  Rock samples from the Moon were examined using this apparatus.

Encoders

Encoders

Various linear and rotary encoders have been produced including a heavy duty linear one, designed for use with a very powerful hydraulic jack on building sites, this wire-pull linear encoder provides measurement of 600mm with an accuracy better than ±0.5mm.  It is constructed with a substantial stainless steel case and was specified to withstand a fall of 2m on to concrete.  A portable battery operated readout box is available for on-site confirmation of correct functioning. Multi-turn, absolute encoders resolving to 200 parts per turn, can be provided with a number of lay-shafts geared 10:1 to each other, to count any number of turns.  A CNC disk mastering apparatus can resolve to .001⁰ and generate patterns for incremental or multi-channel absolute encoders.

SEIZTIMER - Electronic Scale Reader

SEIZTIMER - Electronic Scale Reader

Petro-geologists were scanning the North Sea with hydrophones trailing a boat, fitted with a gas banger.  The output of the hydrophones was recorded on 30m long charts.  They drew lines on these charts as they interpreted them and then needed to rapidly scan across the chart at 50 cm intervals and transfer the coordinates of their lines to a computer.  We made a bar with a black and silver, 1mm pitch grating and this reading head with four led-phototransistor pairs which scanned the grating to generate two differential signals with a 90º phase shift.  These signals were put through a circuit to count the transitions – 4 per mm – which were counted, serialised and sent through the RS232 serial input of the computer.  The computer could then generate contour maps of the seabed.

Batch Extrusion Press

Batch Extrusion Press

A horizontally mounted piston and cylinder is driven by a screw jack capable of exerting a force of ten tonnes on extrudable material.  The cylinder can be made of steel or stainless steel.  A variable speed motor, driven by an inverter controls the rate of extrusion. Optionally, the actual force being applied to the piston can be monitored by a dial gauge and the cylinder can be arranged with heaters or may be refrigerated.  Conveyor belts to receive the extrudate can also be provided.

Electro-pneumatic Self Feeding Drills

Electro-pneumatic Self Feeding Drills

A combination of a three phase motor directly driving a single or double drill chuck with pneumatic feed and pneumatic single pulse start signal.  Ideal for stroke up to 25mm and drills up to 8mm.

For more information and to discuss your requirements, telephone us now: +44 (0) 1223 650 137

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